Sunday, November 29, 2020

Alcohol Sugar Ketosis

 Alcohol converts sugar to ketones by acting upon the enzyme hexokinase, which is found in sufficient amount in the liver. This gives rise to a chain of reactions:

Beta oxidation of the alcohol by aldehyde dehydrogenase results in its dehydration to acetaldehyde. Two molecules of NAD+ are reduced and one molecule of GTP is produced in this reaction.

Acetaldehyde is converted to acetate by the enzyme alcohol dehydrogenase. The overall reaction for this step is:

Acetate is split into two molecules of acetyl CoA by the enzyme acetyl-CoA synthase. This step also requires one molecule of FAD, and produces 2 molecules of NADH.

The acetyl CoA molecules are oxidized to carbon dioxide by the enzyme complex pyruvate dehydrogenase. Two moles of NAD+ and 2 moles of FADH2 are reduced in this reaction.

The acetyl CoA molecules are converted to acetoacetate by the enzyme thiolase.

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